Reply To: Mushroom production

#1425
Nathan gomori
Participant

*Number one* introduction

A mushroom develops in two stages: a vegetative phase when it grows and decomposes organic matter, and a fruiting phase, when mushrooms (fruiting bodies) are produced. The cool, moist environment in woodlands is ideal for the growth and development of mushrooms and some species can be cultivated under these conditions. The strategy in cultivating mushrooms is to introduce a desirable species onto a growing medium and promote its growth, so that eventually fruiting bodies are formed.
*Number two* mushroom house

It is also called the fruiting or growing house

The dimension depends with the number of substrate bags the grower can handle

Walls can be made from farm brick or wooden frame.

Plastics should be used to linethe walls in order to increase the relative humidity in the production room

A roof thatched with grass or banana leaves

Air vents and windows on the upper side of the walls for ventilation and light to initiate fruiting

The house should provides optimum conditions for fruiting

Temperature 18 to 25°c

Humidity 80 to 90 %
*Number three* incubation/spawning room

Spawned substrate bags are kept in this rooms for the mushroom mycelium to grow.

Alternatively the spawned bags can be covered with a black plastic in the room

If using the mushroom house for incubation the air vents and windows should be closed to provide dark conditions for sprawing

Light is not needed in the incubation room and temperature should be about 24°c
*Number four* mushroom spawn

Spawn is refereed to as the mushroom seed in mushroom mycelium growing on sorghum, wheat or barley

High quality Spawn should be obtained from reputable spawn laboratories
*Number five* substrates

This the agricultural waste on which the mushroom grows

It can be;
Finely chopped rice or Wheat straw
Shredded maize cobs
Cotton waste
Banana leaves

Any substrates should be pasteurized to avoid contaminations

Add lime at 1 to 2% rate
*Number six* incubation

During incubation the mushroom grows 5o cover the whole substrate.

Place spawned bags at 24°c in the dark incubation room or cover the bags with black plastic in the house

Bags are ready for mushroom formation when the substrate appears white

Full colonization occurs at 14 to 40 days

Transfer bags to the mushroom house or expose the bags by removing the black plastic
*Number seven* fruiting

This is the formation of mushrooms

Open the air vents or windows in the mushroom house to provide light and to initiate fruiting

After on day open the bags by making long cuts or holes at the top and at the bottom of the bags using clean sharp instrument. Mushroom will form through the opening.

Mushroom will begin to form in 3 to 4 days and will be ready for harvesting in next 2 to 3 days.

A temperature range of 20 to 28°c

Relative humidity 80 to 95%
*Number eight* pests and diseases

Moulds:
Most common are green, yellow and black

Damping off:
Fungal competitor inhibiting mushroom growth
*Number nine* weeds
Inky cap
Competitor weeds should be controlled
*Number ten* problems in mushroom

Poor yields

Pest and diseases e.g bacteria snail and insects

Poor spawn will result in poor quality

*What should be done*

Order high quality spawn

Hygiene

Sterilize all working instruments

Keep doors and window closed

Keep floors clean
*Number eleven* harvesting

By gently Twist the stalk and pull

Harvest from the open ends first

Make more long cuts or holes on the central portion of the bags so that more mushroom will be formed

Continue to harvest as long as the substrate appears white